1409, 2021

THE ESSENCE OF INCLUSIVE APPROACH INTEGRATION INTO LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES IN UZBEKISTAN

Рубрики: Педагогические науки, Психология и педагогика: проблемы и решения|Метки: , , , , , |

Автор(ы): Aziza TURSUNOVA

This article provides the basic strategies to better integration of inclusive approach into language acquisition process, highlighting the applicable techniques and practical advice to assist educational representatives in creation of common notion and essence of inclusiveness within classes. It has been found that student-centered approach in any type of learning empowers students’ communication, collaboration and self-reflection skills. Furthermore, the importance of deep approach, that forms inclusiveness, contributes to the development of problem-solving capabilities and ability to categorize the tasks by their complexity, fosters the recruitment process of a graduate. Finally, the article provides some solutions to the issues related to the barriers to establish inclusiveness imposed by the peculiarities of Uzbek learners within their educational environment.

 

 

The integration of inclusiveness into the educational process is a key factor in the development of education sector in developing countries, including Uzbekistan. The echoes of last century’s methodology are represented by a number of approaches, the main focus of which is teaching the masses, which by itself excludes consideration of individual characteristics and aspects of the student’s perception. However, in 1990, under the aegis of UNESCO, the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education has been adopted, which describes the policy of providing the population with quality education, according to which the needs, individual characteristics should be considered and the educational process must be tailored to the needs of each learner. Thus, the “inclusive” approach is a relatively new concept that requires more study and high-quality implementation in the educational system of Uzbekistan.

The interpretation of the term “inclusiveness” implies extensive criteria that characterizes the educational process. The most detailed set of criteria is provided in the Inclusion Index (Booth T., Ainscow M., 2016), and states that inclusiveness allows learners to have greater access to education, motivates them to better and active participation, and directs them to better achievements in education. This article suggests three outstanding approaches of inclusive education and describes a number

of techniques proposed to have potential to contribute to the smooth integration of an inclusive approach in the educational process in the framework of learning a foreign language.

It is essential to mention, that language acquisition classes should be accustomed to student-centeredness and the whole lesson should be designed, so learners interact in pairs and group work, as these settings provide students with the opportunity to practice and exchange their background knowledge and skills. Further students retrieve significant information and mirror the skills of their peers, necessary personally for them. The role of a teacher is to facilitate the lesson, to direct students when required and to provide timely feedback. This way of learning that is called “collaborative” is one of the main features of student-centered approach, as according to some research, learner-centered techniques such as pair work, small group discussions, collaborative activities, and role plays are the main practices associated with student — centeredness (Drotar, 2019).

Another point, related to student-centeredness is the authenticity of materials and topic, as learners should investigate the actual topic that happens in real life occasions. These cases challenge the students to encounter the situation when they will need to apply the skills and knowledge, so the lesson itself must prepare the students to cope with real life issues. It is important to remember that student-centeredness is characterized by the feature when the lesson is aimed at aiding the learners to apply the skills they gained to the real-life context (Doyle, 2011).

Moreover, another very important element of student-centered learning is peer-assessment, when the completed task is provided with a feedback, and every student can comment, discuss within group setting how successful the work has been done. In this way learners enjoy the opportunity to self-reflect, as they could decide how well they did their task and how that effectiveness was reached by their partners. In order to empower student-centeredness, the main figures in the process of learning should be students, who ‘gain insight into the difference between their perception of performance and that of another person’ (Rudland et.al., 2013).

To further discuss the extent of inclusive education it is vital to refer to deep approach in learning. Once deep approach is mentioned, the lesson design should consider smooth complication of tasks, so learners usually start with simple tasks, then they may categorize the information based on gained knowledge. Further, the tasks should be enough complicated by matching and gap-fill activities, that may encourage students to gain new information. Then, should be suggested the task aiming at structuring the content, preferably through authentic materials for further discussions. This progression of task complexity with the contextual implementation of acquired information adapted to social context is one another important feature in deep learning approach (Singh, 2011).

Adding more evidence to the deep approach in learning it is highlighted that the tasks should be aimed at assisting the learners in dealing with real-life situations through problem-solving. The lessons should let students learn about new information and then apply it any case to train problem-solving skills. What is important in this context is that students should be allowed to make mistakes, as later they will reach the correct answer with the assistance of their peers. It is highlighted that the deep approach

is integrated into learning when students gain independence in problem-solving that is the integral part of high-order thinking level (Baeten, Kyndt, Struyven, Dochy, 2010).

Giving the importance to the deep approach in learning low-order thinking skills should be discussed as well, as inclusive approach takes into consideration individual needs of students with comparatively low-order thinking abilities. Within this prism student should be engaged to communicate through the application of WH-questions, as students with high and low critical thinking abilities can participate and make valuable contribution into each other’s learning. It is important to mention that in order to provide deep approach a teacher should keep in mind that in the classroom there maybe also those, who handle low-order thinking assignments (Anjarwati, Chusnul Chotimah, Sa’adah, 2019).

To ensure inclusivity there should be the support by different technical facilities such as visual aids. It is recommended, teachers considered whether any of students handle the information better through variety of communication means: listening, visuals and kinesthetics. Information provided also must be measured, as nowadays there are plenty of learners with poor eye-sight, so they should not be overloaded. Some literature review statements suggest that inclusivity in the classroom is provided when all the participants and learners, even those with some special needs feel comfortable. (Preece, 2019)

Another important aspect of inclusivity that should be considered is some reasonable adjustments to the procedure of lesson plan and assessment tools that are stated in the approved the curricula by stakeholders in educational sphere. Here, teachers should be given some space for adapting the lessons responding particular educational and skills-related needs. It is important to mention, that the objectives of the lesson must stay solid, whereas the design and techniques adaptation should be carried out to let the learners observe their achievements by the end of the class. Some research shows that the measures of inclusivity consider a teacher to be enough flexible and proactive in the provision of multiple means of curricula presentation and assessment modes (Molbæk, 2017).

One more element contributing to inclusivity is the topic selection for Uzbek students, as some topics can be in the list of touchy issues by cultural and traditional means and values. Though, it is recommended to introduce these sensitive topics smoothly, letting the learners get adapted to the real-life issues, outlining that the aim is to provide reasonable argumentation and rational attitude. In this case, when learners get used to experience communication on various subjects it will promote their adaptation skills and once they work both in Uzbekistan and abroad, their cultural identity and customary behavior will not prevent them from quick adaptation and will not affect the level of their motivation. Otherwise the consequences of ‘spontaneity’ and immediate diving into new environments can lead to de-motivation of some students and may be very upsetting to them (Drotar, 2019).

Idea of inclusivity is driven mostly by the attitudes of teachers to every student as if that is the special person with particular wishes and subjective motivation. Teacher should bear in mind is that the his/her role as a teacher is not to teach, tell, give prompt answers to students’ questions, be always there around to help constantly. Teacher should serve the needs of students when witness ‘no-tool battle’ between a student and education, show a reasonably correct direction. As it is highlighted, a teacher should serve rather as a resource, which students may refer only when they need some direction, facilitation and mentoring (Singh, 2011).

1409, 2021

БЎЛАЖАК ЎҚИТУВЧИЛАРНИ ИЖТИМОИЙ-ПЕДАГОГИК ФАОЛИЯТГА ТАЙЁРЛАШДА “ИЖТИМОИЙ ПЕДАГОГИКА” ФАНИНИНГ ЎРНИ

Рубрики: Педагогические науки, Психология и педагогика: проблемы и решения|Метки: , , , , |

Автор(ы): Наргиза МАМАТХАНОВА

Мазкур мақолада олий таълим муассасаларида бўлажак ўқитувчиларни ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятга тайёрлашда “Ижтимоий педагогика”фанини ўқитилиши, республикада ушбу ўқув адабиётининг нашр ҳолати, уларнинг афзаллик ва камчиликлари таҳлил қилинган. Жумладан, мазкур ўқув адабиётларида ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятни ташкил этишнинг ўзига хос жиҳатларига урғунинг берилмаганлиги ихтисослик хусусиятларини ўзида акс эттирувчи ўқув манбаини яратиш каби зарурияти асослаб берилган.

 

 

Ўзбекистон Республикаси узлуксиз таълим тизимида “Ижтимоий педагогика” фанининг ўқитилиши йўлга қўйилганлигига ҳали у қадар кўп вақт бўлмаган бўлса-да, бу борада муайян ишлар амалга оширилди. Жумладан, фаннинг умумий моҳиятини очиб берувчи Давлат таълим стандарти, ўқув дастурлари ишлаб чиқилди; ўқув адабиётлари тайёрланди.

М.Қуронов, З.Қурбонниёзоваларнинг муаллифликларида тайёрланган “Ижтимоий педагогика” ўқув қўлланмаси республикада чоп этилган дастлабки ўқув нашри ҳисобланади. Ушбу қўлланма айни вақтда олий таълим муассасаларида талабаларга ижтимоий педагогика асослари, ижтимоий-педагогик фаолият мазмуни, тамойиллари ва ташкилий-технологик элементлари тўғрисидаги билимларни беришда муҳим амалий аҳамият касб этмоқда. Қўлланмада “Ижтимоий педагогика” фанини ўқитишдан кўзланган мақсад, фаннинг предмети, ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятни ташкил этувчи субъектлар, ижтимоий-педагогик фаолият объектлари, шахснинг шаклланишига таъсир этувчи ижтимоий омиллар, ижтимоий педагогнинг таълим муассасаларидаги ўрни ва роли каби масалаларнинг моҳияти очиб берилган. Бироқ, ушбу ўқув қўлланмада ҳам мактабгача таълим муассасаларида ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятни ташкил этишнинг ўзига хос жиҳатларига урғунинг берилмаганлиги

ихтисослик хусусиятларини ўзида акс эттирувчи ўқув манбаини яратиш заруриятини кун тартибига олиб чиқмоқда.

Бугунги кунда республика олий таълим муассасаларида “Ижтимоий педагогика” фанини ўқитишда Н.М.Эгамбердиева, А.В.Мудрик томонидан ҳамда М.А.Галагузова таҳрири остида чоп этилган адабиётлар асосий манба бўлиб келмоқда.

Республикамиз олимларидан Н.М.Эгамбердиева томонидан илк бор “Ижтимоий педагогика” номли дарслик нашр эттирилиб, мазкур тушунчага қуйидагича таъриф берилган: “Ижтимоий педагогика – шахснинг ижтимоийлашуви қонуниятларини ўрганиш, жамиятнинг ижтимоий муаммоларини ҳал қилиш мақсадида ижтимоий педагогик фаолиятнинг самарали методларини ва технологияларини ишлаб чиқиш ҳамда уларни қўллашга қаратилган педагогика соҳаси”.

Р.А.Мавлонова ва Н.Ҳ.Воҳидоваларнинг қайд этишича Ижтимоий  педагогика – бу ижтимоий таълим-тарбия фаолиятининг махсус методларига эга педагогиканинг мустақил бўлимидир”.

Сўнгги йилларда нашр эттирилган З.Т.Салиеванинг “Ижтимоий педагогика” номли ўқув қўлланмасида мазкур тушунчанинг қуйидаги умумлашган таърифи таклиф этилган: “Ижтимоий педагогика бола ижтимоийлашуви қонуниятларини ўрганадиган, мутахассисларни ижтимоий тарбия ва таълим усуллари ҳамда технологиялар билан таъминлайдиган фан, деб таъриф берсак, ўринли бўлади”.

А.В.Мудрик томонидан тайёрланиб, ўрта махсус таълим учун мўлжалланган “Основы социальной педагогики” (“Ижтимоий педагогика асослари”) дарслиги кириш ва асосий боблар (4 та боб)дан ташкил топган. Боблар остида ёритилган ҳар бир мавзудан кейин мустақил назорат учун саволлар, ҳар бир боб якунида эса мустақил ишлаш учун адабиётлар рўйхати тақдим этилган. Дарслик мазмунига кўра ижтимоийлаштириш, ижтимоий тарбия моҳияти ва таълим муассасаларида (дарсликда “тарбия муассасалари” тушунчаси қўлланилган)   шахсни ривожлантириш учун шарт-шароитларни яратиш масалаларини ёритишга хизмат қилади. Ундан фойдаланиш жараёнида талабалар шахсни ижтимоийлаштириш омиллари ва ижтимоий тарбия мақсади, вазифалари. омиллари, тамойиллари ҳамда шахс томонидан ижтимоий тажрибани орттириш йўллари тўғрисидаги маълумотларни олиш имкониятига эга бўладилар. Мазкур дарслик ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятнинг асосий жиҳатларидан умумий тарзда хабардор қилса-да, бироқ, мақсадига кўра мактабгача таълим муассасаларида ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятни ташкил этиш жараёнининг моҳиятини ёритишга йўналтирилмаган. Бу ўринда шуни ҳам таъкидлаб ўтиш лозимки, дарслик айрим хусусиятларига кўра янги авлод дарсликларини яратишга қўйилган талабларга тўла жавоб бера олмайди. Зеро, замонавий дарсликларда мавзуларнинг баёни тасвирлар билан бойитилиши, таълим олувчини мустақил фикрлаш ва таълим олишга ундовчи элементлар билан бойитилиши (мас., жадваллар, тасвирлар яратиш ёки тестларни ечиш кабилар), таянч тушунчаларнинг моҳияти очиб берилиши (мас., луғатлар ёрдамида) ва албатта, хулосанинг бўлиши мақсадга мувофиқдир.

М.А.Галагузованинг умумий таҳрири остида чоп этилган “Социальная педагогика. Курс лекций” (“Ижтимоий педагогика. Маърузалар курси”) ўқув қўлланмаси олий таълим муассасаларининг талабалари учун мўлжалланган. Қўлланманинг муҳим ютуғи унинг янги авлод дарсликларини яратишга қўйилувчи талабларга мувофиқ яратилганлигидадир. Бу ҳолатни унинг мундарижаси билан танишиш чоғидаёқ англаш мумкин. Ўқув қўлланманинг мундарижаси  кириш сўзи, 21 та маърузани ўз ичига олувчи асосий боблар, таркибига “Ижтимоий педагогика” курсининг дастури ҳамда 100 соатга мўлжалланган ўқув-мавзуий режани олган семинар ва амалий машғулотлар, семинар ва амалий машғулотларнинг режалари, курс ишларининг намунавий мавзулари, курс имтиҳонларининг саволлари, адабиётлар рўйхатидан иборат. Қўлланмада ҳар бир маъруза мавзу баёни, ўз-ўзини назорат учун саволлар ҳамда фойдаланиш учун тавсия этилган адабиётлар рўйхати каби таркибий элементлардан ташкил топган.

Семинар ва амалий машғулотлар режаларини беришда ўзига хос ёндашилганлиги ўқув қўлланмасининг амалий қийматини янада оширган. Мавзулар бўйича режаларни ёритишда самарали методика тавсия этилган бўлиб, унда қуйидагилар акс этади: 1) таянч тушунчаларнинг шарҳи; 2) амалий машғулотларнинг асосий шакллари сифатида тавсия этилган семинарларнинг режалари ёки семинар-баҳслар учун саволлар, муаммоли саволлар; 3) адабиётлар рўйхати; 4) рефератлар учун мавзулар.

Педагогик олий таълим муассасаларида талабаларни ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятга тайёрлашда В.И.Курбатовнинг умумий таҳрири остида чоп этилган “Социальная работа” (“Ижтимоий иш (фаолият)” номли ўқув қўлланмасидан ҳам самарали фойдаланиш мумкин. Ўқув қўлланмасининг тузилмаси қуйидагилардан таркибий элементларни ўз ичига олади: кириш сўзи, асосий боблар (жами 7 боб), адабиётлар рўйхати, ижтимоий ходимнинг луғат-маълумотномаси. Қўлланманинг асосий ютуғини унда адабиётлар рўйхати умумий тарзда эмас, балки ҳар бир боб учун алоҳида-алоҳида тавсия қилинганлиги, таянч тушунчаларнинг алоҳида ажратиб кўрсатилганлиги ҳамда луғат-маълумотноманинг илова қилинганлиги билан белгилаш мумкин. Бироқ, бу ўринда ўқув қўлланмасининг янги авлод дарсликларига қўйилган талабларга мувофиқ яратилмаганлигини ҳам айтиб ўтиш лозим. Асосий бобларда мавзулар (жами 39 та мавзу) бўйича маълумотларнинг оддий баён усулида берилганлиги; мавзу баёнининг турли расмлар, тасвирлар, схемалар ёки жадваллар билан бойитилмаганлиги; назорат саволларининг илова қилинмаганлиги; шунингдек, талабаларни мустақил ўқишга ундовчи кўрсатмаларнинг қайд қилинмаганлиги эса қўлланманинг талабаларда фан асосларини ўзлаштиришга нисбатан қизиқиш ва ўқиш фаоллигини юзага келтиришдаги имкониятларини сезиларли равишда пасайтиради.

И.П.Подласыйнинг “Педагогика” дарслигида қуйидагича таъриф мавжуд: “Ижтимоий  педагогика ижтимоий муҳитнинг шахсни шакллантиришга ва ижтимоий тарбия муаммоларига таъсири қонуниятларини ўрганувчи фандир.

“Ижтимоий педагогика” фани бўйича нашр этилган ўқув адабиётларининг таҳлили соҳага оид манбаларининг камлиги, аксарият адабиётларнинг рус тилида эканлигини келтириб чиқарди.

Гарчи олий таълим муассасаларида талабаларни ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятга тайёрлаш йўлида муайян ишлар амалга оширилаётган бўлса-да, бироқ ҳал этилиши лозим бўлган вазифалар ҳам мавжудлигини кўрсатади.

Жумладан, Ўзбекистон Республикасининг ижтимоий ҳаёти, тараққиёт йўналиши ҳамда минтақанинг ўзига хос жиҳатларини инобатга олган ҳолда “Ижтимоий педагогика” фани бўйича замонавий, хусусан, янги авлод дарсликларига қўйилган талабларга тўла жавоб бера оладиган, шунингдек, таълим олувчиларга мустақил таълим олиш имконини берадиган янги авлод дарсликларини яратиш; талабаларни ижтимоий-педагогик фаолиятга тайёрлашда ижтимоий ташкилотлар (ички ишлар органлари, прокуратуралар қошидаги “Вояга етмаганлар билан ишлаш Комиссияси”, соғлиқни сақлаш, физиологик ёки психологик нуқсонга эга болаларни қайта тиклаш, мактабгача таълим, умумий ўрта таълим, ўрта махсус касб-ҳунар таълими ва ахлоқ тузатиш муассасалари, болаларни соғломлаштириш оромгоҳлари) билан ҳамкорликни йўлга қўйиш каби вазифаларни ҳал этиш мақсадга мувофиқ деб ҳисоблаймиз.

1409, 2021

СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЕ ПРОЦЕССА ДИСТАНЦИОННОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ВО ВРЕМЯ ПАНДЕМИИ «COVID 19» ЧЕРЕЗ СОЗДАНИЕ МНОГОЯЗЫЧНОГО СЛОВАРЯ ПО ГЕОГРАФИЧЕСКИМ ОБЪЕКТАМ УЗБЕКИСТАНА

Рубрики: Педагогические науки, Психология и педагогика: проблемы и решения|Метки: , , , , , |

Автор(ы): Дусмурод ДЖУРАЕВ, Миршод УРАЛОВ

В статье рассматриваются пути и важность совершенствования дистанционного образования в период пандемии «COVID 19» путем создания многоязычного электронного словаря по географическим объектам Узбекистана. В результате внедрения электронного словаря в учебный процесс будет создан дополнительный ресурс для студентов, обучающихся по данной специальности.

 

 

Вместе с изучением историю страны важно помнить об этнографии региона. На сегодняшний день очень актуально создание цифрового этнографического атласа (I-Etnoatlas), который даст подробную информацию о регионах страны, местах паломничества отвечающие требованиям экотуризма, заповедниках, пещерах, водопадах, археологических памятниках, этнографических и культурных образцах (область и династии ремесленников). А для продвижения данного направления нужно регулярно обновлять созданных видеороликов, системных буклетов, разработанных мобильных приложений атласа. Создание

данного словаря особенно актуально во время пандемии «Covid 19», когда основная масса студентов обучаются дистанционно.

Природа Узбекистана представляет своеобразное сочетание равнинного и горного рельефа. Равнины расположены на юго-западе и северо-западе и состоят из плато Устюрт, дельты Амударьи и пустыни Кызылкум. В центральной и юго-западной части этой пустыни имеются довольно крупные горные возвышенности. Горы и предгорья, занимая около трети территории республики, находятся на востоке и юго-востоке, где смыкаются с мощными горными образованиями Кыргызстана и Таджикистана. Высшая точка гор республики — 4643 метра.

Между горами расположены долины и равнины. Наиболее крупная Ферганская. Она простирается более чем на 370 километров. Ширина ее достигает 190 километров. С трех сторон долина окружена горами и только с запада открыта.

Без сомнения, цифровой I-Etnoatlas Узбекистана, видеоклипы, слайды, брошюры и другие материалы будут воспитывать молодое поколение страны в духе патриотизма, любви к Родине, уважение к истории, материальной культуре и почитание к природе. При решении данной проблемы производится систематизация информации о местах отправления культа, заповедниках, пещерах, водопадах, археологических памятниках, этнографической, материальной и нематериальной культуре (ремесленничество, ремесленные династии), отвечающей требованиям экотуризма, идентификации регионов, разработке системы маршрутизации туров.

Цифровой проект I-Etnoatlas Узбекистана направлен на удовлетворение не только потребностей республики Узбекистан, Центральной Азии, стран СНГ, но и иностранных туристов, интересующихся архитектурным наследием Узбекистана, проблемами всего населения страны.

При изучении данной проблемы производятся исследования следующих направлений:

  • классификация основных наций, народов, наций, этнографических групп в Республике Узбекистан;
  • изучение региональных особенностей, богатой материальной и нематериальной культуры, традиций и праздников, характерных для разных исторических и этнографических регионов республики, для иностранных и отечественных туристов с целью продвижения туристического потенциала в Узбекистане;
  • создание цифровых карт и дорожных знаков, отражающих этнографический атлас Узбекистана;
  • разработка серии буклетных альбомов, посвященных национальным ценностям, семейным, календарным, традиционным национальным и религиозным праздникам узбекского народа;
  • широкое распространение культуры и традиций узбеков в республиканских и зарубежных средствах массовой информации и социальных сетях;
  • подготовка видеороликов «Ценности узбекского народа», «Культура и традиции народов Узбекистана», демонстрирующие тенденции этнотуризма для иностранных туристов;
  • в сотрудничестве с зарубежными университетами (Католический университет Лувена, Университет Бельгии и Университет Чибу, Япония) проведение презентаций для туристических компаний и организаций о потенциале этнотуризма Узбекистана, его основные тенденции и перспективы развития;
  • разработать словарь туристических и этнографических терминов на английском-русском-узбекском языках.При изучении данной проблемы решаются такие задачи, как:
    • систематизируются территориальные особенности различных историко-этнографических регионов республики, богатая материальная и нематериальная культура, традиции и праздники;
    • классифицируются этнографические группы наций, народов, наций в республике;
    • определяется потенциал этнотуризма, его основные тенденции и перспективы развития;
    • будет создан этнографический атлас Узбекистана «I-Etnoatlas».

    Исходя из вышеизложенного, важно разработать научный комплекс мер по сохранению, рациональному использованию и восстановлению природных ресурсов и естественной окружающей среды, в том числе видового разнообразия флоры и фауны, богатства недр, чистоты вод, лесов и атмосферы Узбекистана и в том числе всей Земли. Охрана природы имеет экономическое, историческое, социальное и государственное значение.

1409, 2021

CHAQIRIQQACHA HARBIY TAʼLIM OʻQITUVCHILARDA KASBIY KOMPETENTLIGINI SHAKLLANTIRISHNING NAZARIY-METODIK ASOSLARI

Рубрики: Педагогические науки, Психология и педагогика: проблемы и решения|Метки: , , , , , , , |

Автор(ы): Jamshid NAZAROV

Hozirgi kunda o’quvchi-yoshlar harbiy ta’lim sirlari hamda ajdodlar tomonidan to’plangan saboqlar, urf-odat, milliy-ma’naviy qadriyatlar va hayotiy tajriba asosida jamiyatda o’zining munosib o’rnini egallashi, bilim salohiyati va dunyoqarashining shakllanishida chaqiriqqacha harbiy ta’lim o’qituvchisi, uning kasbiy kompetentligini shakllantirish muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi.

 

 

Pedagogikada “kompetentlik” – bu talabaningshaxsiy va ijtimoiy ahamiyatga ega kasbiy faoliyatni amalga oshirilishi uchun zarur bo‘lgan bilim, ko‘nikma va malakalaming egallanishi hamda ularning kasbiy faoliyatda qo‘llay olishi bilan ifodalanadi. Pedagogika oliy ta’lim muassasalarida ta’limning har bir bosqichi uchun ta’lim bloklari va o‘quv fanlari darajasida tayanch kompetentlik aniqlanadi [1-3].

Tayanch kompetentlik tartibini belgilashda kasbiy pedagogik ta’limning asosiy maqsadlariga muvofiq ijtimoiy hamda shaxsiy tajribaning mohiyati,ijtimoiy jamiyatda kasbiy faoliyatni tashkil etish jarayonida hayotiy kasb etadi. Ushbu nuqtai nazardan

tayanch kompetentlik: yaxlit – mazmunli, ijtimoiy-madaniy, o‘quv-bilish, axborot olish, kommunikativ, ijtimoiy faoliyatli, shaxsning o‘z-o‘zini takomillashtirish turlariga bo‘linadi [2-4].

Ushbu nuqtai nazardan tayanch kompetentlik: yaxlit — mazmunli, ijtimoiy-madaniy, o‘quv-bilish, axborot olish, kommunikativ, ijtimoiy faoliyatli, shaxsning o‘z-o‘zini takomillashtirish turlariga bo‘linadi. Chaqiriqqacha harbiy taʼlim o‘qituvchisining kasbiy shakllanishi quyidagi tarzda namoyon bo‘ladi: pedagogik tizim, jarayon va natija [2-3].

Ijtimoiy qoidalar kasbiy shakllanish darajasini baholashda muhim asoslar sifatida aks etadi va ular, o‘z navbatida, Davlat ta’lim standart mazmunida qayd etiladi. Ta’lim tizimi faoliyatini baholashda uning samaradorligi hamda pedagogik tizim rivoji bilan bog‘liq asosiy ko‘rsatkichlarini ajratib ko‘rsatish mumkin. Aynan ana shu ko‘rsatkichlar chaqiriqqacha harbiy taʼlim o‘qituvchining kasbiy shakllanish darajasini baholash mantig‘ini asoslab beradi. Jamiyatda ta’lim tizimini rivojlantirishning strategik yo‘nalishi – bu insonning turli sohalarida maqsadli mustaqil faoliyati asosida uning intellekt va ahloqiy rivojlanishidir [1-5]. Jahonning rivojlangan davlatlari qatori mamlakatimizda ham ta’limdagi islohotlar jarayonida mustaqil ta’limni rag‘batlantirish muhim yo‘nalish sifatida kelmoqda. Bo‘lajak chaqiriqqacha harbiy taʼlim o‘qituvchisining metodik kompetentligini shakllantirish pedagoglami tayyorlashdagi murakkab muammolar qatorida o‘ziga xos o‘rin tutadi. Ayniqsa ta’limni modernizatsiyalash bilanbog‘liqislohotlaming joriy bosqichida kasbiy pedagogik faoliyatga moslashish muammosi yanada yaqqol namoyon bo‘lmoqda. Bo‘lajak chaqiriqqacha harbiy taʼlim o‘qituvchilarini amaliy, psixologik, metodik, tadqiqotchilik turlari bilan bir qatorda chaqiriqqacha harbiy tayyorgarlik o‘qituvchisini metodik kompetentligini shakllantirish bilan boyib bormoqda. Metodik kompetentlik tashxisi kasbiy shakllanishning mohiyatli xarakteristikalariga diagnostik, kommunikativlik, boshqaruv va proyektiv o ‘quvlar guruhlarini kiritish lozim [3-5].

Hozirgi kunda butun dunyo pedagogik jamoatchiligi tomonidan e’tirof etilayotgan taraqqiyot ta’lim modeli-bu kompetensiyalarni shakllantirishga yo‘naltirilgan ta’limdir. Chaqiriqqacha bo‘lgan o‘quvchi-yoshlar harbiy ta’lim sirlari bilan birga ajdodlar tomonidan to‘plangan bilim, odob, urf-odat, milliy-ma’naviy qadriyatlar va hayotiy tajriba asosida jamiyatda o‘zining munosib o‘rnini egallashi, bilim salohiyati va dunyoqarashining shakllanishida chaqiriqqacha harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchisi, uning kasbiy tayyorgarligi muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi. Shu bilan birga, chaqiriqqacha bo‘lgan o‘quvchi-yoshlarda milliy armiyamiz talabidan kelib chiqqan holda yuqori darajadagi professional bilim va ko‘nikmalarni shakllantirish harbiy pedagogik faoliyat sohasining ustuvor vazifasi hisoblanadi. Buning uchun avvalo chaqiriqqacha harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchilarining o‘zida yangicha bilim berish, o‘zining pedagogik va harbiy-professional malakasini doimo oshirib, xorijiy armiyalarning ilg‘or tajribalarini o‘zlashtirib borishi va ijodiy faoliyat bilan shug‘ullana olish ko‘nikmalari tarkib topgan bo‘lishi lozim. Bu muammoning qanchalik murakkabligi, xayotda zarurligini, muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi. Bo‘lajak harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchilarining kasbiy tayorgarligi dastur doirasi bilangina cheklanib qolmasligi zarur, uning bilimi, mahorati ancha keng va chuqur bo„lmog„i lozim. Jumladan, hozirgi paytda ta’lim tizimi taraqqiyoti insonni bilimning turli sohalaridagi xilmaxil, mustaqil, maqsadga yo„naltirilgan faoliyat turlariga jalb qilish asosida intelektual va axloqiy kamolotini ta’minlashga qaratiladi. Bo‘lajak harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchilarini kasbiy tayyorlash jarayonida o‘qituvchi kompetentligiga ham e’tibor qaratish lozim. Bo‘lajak harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchilarining metodologik kompetentligi esa doimo izlanuvchan bo‘lishida, kasbiy va ijodiy kompetentlikni rivojlantirib borishda, loyhalash madaniyati va ularni innovatsion faoliyatda qo‘llay olishida ko‘rinadi. O‘zbekistonning kelajak ravnaqi bugungi yosh avlod tarbiyasining qanday bo‘lishi va to‘laqonli shakllanishiga bog‘liq. Mustaqil jamiyat e’tiqoddi, dili pok, ruhi komil insonlar tomonidan quriladi. Bu haqda O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidenti Sh.M.Mirziyoyevning “ta’lim va ilm-fan davlatning yoshlarga doir siyosatini amalga oshirish ta’limning yangi zamonaviy usullarini jumladan axborot-kommunikatsiya texnologiyalarini joriy etish” – deb ta’kidlashi ta’lim muassasalarida bir qator vazifalarni hal etish zarurligini ko‘rsatadi, hech shubhasiz, asosiy vazifaning qanday bajarilishi, talabalarimizga dastur miqyosidagi ta’limtarbiyaning singdirilishi yoki singdirilmasligi o‘qituvchilarga bog‘liq [2]. Demak, bo‘lajak chaqiriqqacha harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchilarining bilim saviyasi, kasb mahorati, muomala madaniyati yuksak bo‘lishi hayotiy ehtiyoj, haqiqiy harbiy rahbar-yuksak madaniyat sohibi, chuqur bilim va puxta malakaga ega bo‘lishi lozim. Bo‘lajak chaqiriqqacha harbiy ta’lim o‘qituvchilarining nazariy va ilmiy saviyasi, metodik mahorati ham talab darajasida bo‘lishi lozim. Pedagogik-psixologik tayyorgarlik, mashg‘ulotlarni tashkil qilish va o‘tkazish mahorati Pedagog ta’lim-tarbiya jarayonida qo‘llaniladigan o‘qitish shakllarining pedagogik psixologik asoslari; psixodiagnostika usullaridan foydalanish; o‘qitish shakllarida o‘qitish metodlari va vositalaridan o‘rinli foydalana olish; ta’lim mazmuni, metodlari, vositalari va shakllarining uyg‘unligi, uzviyligini ta’minlay olish; pedagogik va axborot-kommunikatsiya texnologiyalarini qo‘llashning nazariy va amaliy asoslarini egallagan bo‘lishi lozim. Tarbiyalashning usul va vositalarini egallaganlik Ma’naviy-ma’rifiy ishlarni tashkil etishda pedagog ilmiy-nazariy, ma’naviy-ma’rifiy, madaniy qadriyatlardan samarali foydalanish malakasiga ega bo‘lish, o‘qitish jarayonida yoshlar ongiga milliy g‘oyani singdirishning mazmuni, vositalari, metodlari va shakllarini Axborot-kommunikatsiya texnologiyalaridan foydalanish Pedagoglar informatika va axborot texnologiyalari asoslari, axborotlarni saqlash, qayta ishlash, tarqatish va namoyish qilishni bilishi, Microsoft Office dasturlari, jumladan Windows operatsion tizimida ishlay olishi, Microsoft Excel dasturiy muhitida jadvalli ma’lumotlarni qayta ishlash texnologiyasi, Internetning asosiy imkoniyatlari, Internetda axborot maydonlarini saralovchi Web saytlari haqida ma’lumotlar, Internetdan ma’lumot olish va ma’lumotlar kiritish texnologiyalarini bilishi, elektron pochta va undan foydalanish texnologiyalarini, dasturiy ta’minotning asosiy turlarini bilishi va foydalana olishi, fanlardan maxsus taqdimotlar va elektron resurslar tayyorlashi va qo‘llay olishi, ta’lim jarayonida amaliy masalalarni echishda axborot texnologiyalarini qo‘llash; masofaviy ta’lim elektron o‘quv-metodik bazasini yaratish va undan foydalana olishi lozim [3]. Xorijiy tillarni o‘zlashtirish Xorijiy tilda turli janrdagi (teleko‘rsatuv, radio eshittirish, e’lonlar, yangiliklar va h.) audio va video matnlarni eshitib, asosiy ma’nosini tushunib muhokama qila olish; har qanday og‘zaki nutqni tinglab tushunish; xorijiy tilda, tele suhbatlarni tushuna olish; kasbiy va shaxsiy qiziqishiga doir ma’ruzalar, prezentatsiyalar, nutqlarni tushuna olish. Respublikamizda pedagog kadrlar tayyorlash borasida etakchi oliy ta’lim muassasasi hisoblangan universitetimizda ta’lim va tarbiya mazmuni, innovatsion o‘quv-metodik majmualar va elektron ta’lim resurslari, o‘quv-moddiy baza yuksak ma’naviyatli, etuk pedagog shaxsini shakllantirishga qaratilmoqda.

Bo‘lajak chaqiriqqacha harbiy taʼlim o‘qituvchida metodik kompetentlikni shakllantirishning maqsadi kasbiy va shaxsiy rivojlanish jarayonida talabaning o‘z-o‘zini anglash, baholash va boshqarish kabi tarkibiy qismlami rivojlantirish va turli ta’lim muassasalarida ishlashga tayyorlash sanalsada, umumkasbiy va ixtisoslik fanlari asoslarini o‘rganish vazifalari quyidagilardan iborat bo‘lib, aniq pedagogik hamda ishlab chiqarish muammoli vaziyatlarda masalani ajratib olish va ularni hal qilish usuli sifatida pedagogik va texnik-texnologik tafakkurni rivojlantirish orqali amalga oshiriladi.

1409, 2021

THE ROLE OF A TEACHER IN COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES

Рубрики: Педагогические науки, Психология и педагогика: проблемы и решения|Метки: , , , , , |

Автор(ы): Yulduz MAMUTOVA, Shakhnoza PIRNAZAROVA

The present article investigates teachers’ role, providing useful ideas to make the speaking lesson in EFL classroom as effective as possible. The responsibilities of establishing situations that teachers are charged with to promote communication in the target language are analyzed as well.

 

 

EFL teachers play a great role in organizing communicative activities. The main role of the teacher is to be facilitator of his or her students’ learning. The teacher is the manager of classroom activities. Teachers are charged with the responsibility of establishing situations likely to promote communication. The students are communicators, and they learn to communicate by speaking. In CLT, learning activities are selected according to the interests of the learner.

The goal of any language teaching course is, by and large, to enable students to use the language they learn in real-life situations. As stated in Freeman and Anderson, for teachers to succeed in this mission they must  introduce authentic language in classroom;  language functions together with the different structures through which they can be conveyed depending on different situations; and use the role-play technique where students are ascribed different social roles which they have to play in real-life situations.

It is clear that, with such principles, CLT methodology has marked a paradigm shift in the roles of both the learner and the teacher. Learners now have to work cooperatively and learn from their peers instead of individual learning, or from the teacher as highlighted in traditional approaches. They are now engaged in designing classroom activities and encouraged to develop a sense of “autonomous and life-long learning”.

Breen and Candlin summarized the roles of learners as follows:

“The role of learner as negotiator – between the self, the learning process, and the project of learning – emerges from and interacts with the role of joint negotiator within the group and within the classroom procedures and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learners is that they should contribute as much as they gain, and thereby learn in an interdependent way”.

Teachers, on the other hand, are now expected to act as facilitators, advisors and monitors during classroom activities. In other words, the teacher now is seen as “a guide on the side”; he intervenes only when students are facing some difficulties with either the content or the design of classroom activities. Instead of being the correct model of the target language and having a negative attitude towards learner’s erroneous output, the teacher now has to develop a positive tendency towards errors. They are considered an indication of learner’s language development. The teacher can rely on these errors to determine the learners’ level and design appropriate communicative activities accordingly. For these activities to be meaningful they must be based on real-life situations; they must also include communicative features namely: information gaps (i.e., activities where students seek to get a piece of information which they do not know), choice (i.e., activities where students have to choose the appropriate way to express themselves depending on the situation) and feedback (i.e., activities where students get feedback on their output). During classroom activities, teachers can also act as an independent communicator and be a member of the whole group.

Richards and Rodgers identified three main roles ascribed to the teacher within the CLT framework. The teacher is seen as a need analyst, a counselor and a group process manager. First, he is a need analyst in that he is required to determine and respond to learners’ language needs. This can be done either by individual conversations with students or by administering needs assessments. Second, the teacher acts as a counselor and a facilitator who is expected to exemplify the communicative process through the use of confirmation and feedback. Third, the teacher is expected to act as a group manager. CLT guidelines suggest that during communicative activities the teacher monitors, manages and advises students but never intervenes to correct or supply information gaps; this is done later when the focus is on accuracy.

Breen and Candlin summarized the roles of the teacher within CLT as follows:

The teacher has two main roles: the first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and between these participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an independent participant within the learning-teaching group. The latter role is closely related to the objectives of the first role and arises from it.

Widdowson observes that the “natural” way of acquiring a language is slow and inefficient and the purpose of language teaching is to make this process fast and simple. He suggests that language teachers need to assist learners by providing them with frameworks, patterns and rules to develop their communicative language skills. He recommends the use of lexical phrases in language teaching, as they are pragmatic and functional and have a clearly defined role, so they guide students in the flow of conversation and assist them in conveying meaning.

The teacher also has the duty of structuring classrooms in a manner that motivates students. He or she should focus on both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Discussing topics of genuine interest for learners is a useful tool for maintaining and increasing learner motivation. It is important that learners discuss topics of genuine interest to them while learning and practicing in English. The teacher is also charged with the responsibility of creating a conductive classroom environment. Learners’ communicative skills can be developed if they are motivated and provided an opportunity to express their identity and relate their feelings to the people around them. They should feel secure and valuable as individuals in their learning atmosphere because a secure learning atmosphere fosters growth of interpersonal relationships between learners themselves and between the learner and the teacher thereby making the class atmosphere safe, encouraging, and accommodating.

Hendrickson believes that CLT should include activities that are interesting to the learners and challenge their linguistic abilities while at the same time, capturing their imagination and motivating them to continue to acquire and use foreign language beyond the textbook and classroom. Language teachers should provide diverse, interesting and abundant communicative activities. Language teachers assist learners in developing their communicative ability and help them to express themselves and understand others in social settings.

It is observed that the communicative approach puts emphasis on listening, which implies an active will to try to understand others. In summary, the role of the teacher as one of listener rather than speaker comes out in CLT. The teacher should be a patient listener, and it is the basic requirement. Since teachers talk less and listens more, they become active facilitators of their students’ learning. The teacher sets up the exercise, but because the students‟ performance is the goal, the teacher must step back and observe, sometimes acting as referee or monitor. A classroom during a communicative activity is far from quiet. The students do most of the speaking, and frequently the scene of a classroom during a communicative exercise is active.

Because of the increased responsibility to participate, students may find they gain confidence in using the target language in general. Students are more responsible managers of their own learning. CLT enhances listening and speaking through interactive tasks such as role-play, public speaking, dictation, debates, among others. These activities imply learner-centered lessons where the learners perform most of the tasks leaving the teacher as a facilitator.

Conclusion

To sum up, teachers take an important part in developing students’ language skills through organizing communicative activities. They may act as facilitators, monitors, analyst, manager, motivator, and guide not fully controlling the activities, but giving directions when learners face difficulties.

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